المحاسبة المالية باللغة الانجليزية FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING IN ENGLISH

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عدد الصفحات: 384
نوع التجليد: كرتونية
رقم الطبعة: 7
لون الطباعة: اسود
القياس (سم): 17x24
الوزن (كغم): 0.715
الباركود: 9789957061074
السعر : 20.00 $

We are happy to introduce "Financial Accounting Principles and Practices in English." The Fourth edition of this book has been revided, updated and enticed in various chapters, where needful alterations were necessary to provide more linkage and integration. It is predominantly an age of Accounting, Today there is hardly any area of life into which accounting has not found its way. More and more government departments, national and international institutions have realized the significance of accounting.

Accounting which is one of the branches of commerce, is the language of business. It records the business transactions taking place during the accounting period and communicates the results of the transactions to various parties, namely proprietors, creditors and potential investors. Proprietors of a business are interested in the wellbeing of business. The present creditors want to know the solvency of the business and the potential investors are keen to know the earning potential of the business. In view of the utility of accounting statements to various interested parties, it is necessary to recognize the urgency of a scientific approach to the recording of business transactions and communicating the results to various parties. Keeping this in view, an attempt has been made in the book to present the methods of preparation of accounts in a lucid manner to cater to the best needs of the readers. The main intention of this book is to present the subject- matter in such a manner that a student who has no prior knowledge of the subject of Accountancy can understand the scientific approach without any difficulty.

We have kept in mind he level of the standard of English among the students and have treated all the topics in a simple language and lucid style, which will enable them to grasp the essence of the subject.

Though there is no dearth of books on this subject in the market, an employee with severe constraint of time still gropes in the dark in the absence of a fruitful and proper guidance. It is hoped that this book will also cater to the needs of the employees. In this book, the basic concepts have been explained thoroughly followed by a good number of suitable but graded illustrations. Review questions and practical problems have also been given at the end of each chapter to provide the students and employees with an opportunity to test their ability.

Inspite of our best efforts, in the predation of this book, several errors of commissions and omissions may have crept in. In a book on a technical subject, such as the present one, it is futile to expect that printer's devil has not entered in. We shall be grateful if the mistakes, deficiencies and suggestions are brought to our knowledge by careful and benevolent readers for further improvement of this book.

1. ACCOUNTING – INTRODUCTION:

    Introduction

    Definition of Accounting

    The users of Accounting information

    Definition of Book – Keeping

    Features of Book – Keeping

    Objects of Book – Keeping

    Importance of Book – Keeping

    Utility of Book – Keeping

    The Distinction between Book – Keeping and Accountancy

    Functions of Accounting

    Classification of Accounting

    Limitation of Accounting

    Accounting Principles, Concepts and Conventions

    Test Questions

2. ACCOUNING TRANSACTION, RECORDING, POSTING AND PREPARATION OF TRIAL BALANCE:

    Double Entry Book – Keeping

    Advantages of Double Entry System

    Disadvantages of Double Entry System

    Classifications of Accounts

    Rules of Journalisation

    Balance Sheet Equation

    Illustrations

    Accounting Cycle and Books of Accounts

    Source Documents

    Books of Original Entry

    The Journal

    Utility of Journal

    Journalising

    Illustrations

    Types of Entries

    Illustrations

    The Ledger

    Balancing The Ledger Account

    Illustrations

    Debit Balance

    Credit Balance

    Illustrations

    Trail Balance

    Nature of Balances of Different Ledger Accounts

    Illustration

    Book – Keeping and Accounting Terms

    Test Questions

3. SUBSIDIRY BOOKS:

    The Cash Book

    Cash Book with Receipts and Payments Column

    Illustration

    Tow Column Cash Book

    Illustration

    Triple Column Cash Book

    Illustration

    The Perry Cash Book

    Illustration

    Credit Books

    Discount

    Trade Discount

    Cash Discount

    Differences between Trade Discount and Cash Discount

    Purchases Book

    Illustration

    Sales Book

    Illustration

    Purchases Returns Book

    Illustration

    Sales Returns Book

    Illustration

    Bills Receivable Book

    Illustration

    Bills Payable Book

    Illustration

    Test Questions

4. ACCOUNTING FOR ASSETE AND LIABILITIES:

    Meaning Cost of Assets

    Determining Cost of Assets

    Current Assets

    Classifications of Current Assets

    Cash

    Cash Shortage and Overage

    Band Reconciliation

    Reconciliation of Ledger Cash Account and Band Account

    Reasons of Disagreement

    Methods of Preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement

    Merchandising Transactions

    Income Measurement for a merchandising company

    Revenue From Sales

    Cost of Goods Sold

    Quantity Discount

    Test Questions

5. DEPRECIATION:

    MEANIN

    CAUSES of Depreciation

    Need for providing Depreciation

    Straight line Method

    Illustrations

    The Diminishing Balance Method

    Accumulated Depreciation Investment Method

    Revaluation Method

    Machine Hour Rate Method

    Depreciatioin Accounting

    Traditional (Direct) Method

    Modern (Indirect) Method

    Disposal of Fixed Assets

    Sale of Fixed Assets

    Exchange of Fixed Assets

    Test Questions

6. CAPITAL AND REVENUE EXPENDITURE:

    Capital and Revenue Expenditure

    Distinquish between Capital Expenditure and Revenue Expenditure

    Rules for Determining Capital Expenditures

    Rules for Determining Revenue Expenditures

    Outstanding Expenses or Accrued Expenses

    Prepaid Expenses or Expenses paid in advance

    Outstanding or Accrued Income

    Incomes Received in Advance

    Test Questions

7. ACCOUNTING FOR COMMERICIAL PAPERS:

    MEANING OF Commercial Papers

    Cheques

    Definition of Bill of Exchange

    Parties of a Bill of Exchange

    Promissory Note

    Accounting Entries of Bills of Exchange and Promissory Note

    Test Questions

8. FINANCIAL NOTES PAPERS:

    Investment in Securities

    Classification of Securities

    Accounting treatment for Marketable Securities

    Sale of Securities

    Sale of Shares

    Securities Valuation and presentation on Balance sheet

    Test Questions

9. TRIA BALANVE, ERRORS AND THEIR RECTIFCATION:

    MEANING of Trial Balance

    Objects of preparing Trail Balance

    Main Characteristics and uses of a Trial Balance

    Limitations of a Trial Balance

    Errors

    Classification of Errors

    How to Correct Errors

    Suspense Account

    Test Questions

10. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND CLOSING ACCOUNTS:

    Object of a business

    Final Accounts

    Trading Account

    Manufacturing Account

    The profit and Loss Account

    Income Statement

    Difference between Trading and Profit and Loss Acount

    Balance sheet

    Balance sheet as per American system

    Difference between Trading and profit and Loss Account

    Final Account- Adjustments

    Adjustment for Bad debt

    Adjustment for Provision for Doubtful Debts

    Adjustment for Bad Debts, New Bad Debts, New Reserve and old Reserve

    Provision for Discount on Debtors

    Adjustment for Interest on Capital

    Adjustment for Interest on on Drawing

    Test Questions

    The statement of cash flow

11. COMMERCIAL BUSINESS:

    Forms of Business organisation

    Commercial Business Firms

    Commercial Activity

    Shops And Stores

    Test Questions

12. COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE:

    How to evaluate your letters

    Parts of the Letter

    Auxiliary parts of the letter

    Some Rules for good Writing

    Commercial Letters

    Letters to Suppliers and Reply

    Sales Related Enquiry

    Writing Orders

    Letter Confirming an order

    Acknowledgment of order

    Execution of order

    Request for Payment

    Test Questions

    Meanings of Accounting

    Terminologies in Arabic

    Books Referred