الاحصاء الحيوي باللغة الانجليزية

ادارة الاعمالالعلوم الادارية

الاحصاء الحيوي باللغة الانجليزية

Dr. Mahmoud M. Abdel Rahman
Dr. Majed M. Issa
السعر: 7.50 $
عدد الصفحات: 232
نوع التجليد: برش
رقم الطبعة: 1
لون الطباعة: اسود
القياس (سم): 17x24
الوزن (كغم): 0.355
الباركود: 19973
السعر: 7.50 $

الاحصاء الحيوي باللغة الانجليزية

ادارة الاعمالالعلوم الادارية

Dr. Mahmoud M. Abdel Rahman
Dr. Majed M. Issa
عدد الصفحات: 232
نوع التجليد: برش
رقم الطبعة: 1
لون الطباعة: اسود
القياس (سم): 17x24
الوزن (كغم): 0.355
الباركود: 19973

Statistics is one of the most important sciences. It deals with figures or numerical data, whatever their source is. The objective of statistics is to design, obtain, present, describe and analyse numerical data or observations. Statistical methods in the field of experimental or research work enable the experimenter or researcher to get maximal information from a giver experiment. Besides, Statistical methods can give a valid esti,ate of the error present in the experiment. Furthermore, they minimize the difficulties associated with the variability recorded in a particular experiment or research work. Biostatistics refers to the application of statistics in the field of biological sciences (biology , physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology…etc,) as well ad the estimation of unknown concentration of chemical agents including drugs by various methods (chemical, biochemical and biological).

During the study of a course in biostatistics, our objectives are not only confined to using the appropriate equation (s) for solving a given problem, but also extend beyond after statistical treatment with the results. Moreover, the result obtained after statistical treatment with the result. Moreover, the student should be able to make the proper comment on the results obtained following analyzing the data statistically. The present textbook, fundamentals of biostatistics will concentrate on two mail parts, biological assays and statistics. Biological assays (bioassays) are those methods concerned with the estimation of unknown concentration of drugs by virtue of their specific effect (s) on biological units (intact animals or isolated muscle preparations). In order to apply statistics properly in bioassays, one has to know whtat is meant by bioassays? What are the type of bioassays? When bioassays are used? What are the requirements for a valid bioassay? The importance of inclusion of controls in bioassays, how to minimize biological variability in bioassays? The dose- response relationship of drugs, some details on the most important types of bioassays and how to conduct them? What are the optimal conditions necessary for carrying them?

Besides, one should know the international standard preparations available for many chemicals including drugs also is to learn how to prepare solutions for drugs which are intended to be biological assayed.

This course of biostatistics is aiming at preparing pharmacy, medicine and medical technology students to be acquatinted with the following topics:

1. determination of the measures of central tendency, the arithmetic mean, the medianm and the mode for both simple and classified data.

2. determination of the measures of variability (scatter or dispersion),   the range, the mean deviation, the variance, the standard deviation   and the standard error.

3. presentation of data by various graphical and mathematical methods so that one can get easy and rapid information from a graph or a table. Graphes and table should be properly designed so as to be self  explanatory.

4. determination of the validity of the arithmetic mean. This will help  us take and idea about the variability in results in a given experiment.

5. Besides, it will enable us to know if the number of animal used in an experiment in enough or it had to be increased. Validity of the mean can also give us a proper idea about the designed so as to be self  explanatory.

6. determination of the validity of the arithmetic mean. This will help us take and idea about the variability in result is a given experiment. Besides, it will enable us to know if the number of animal used in an experiment in enough or it has design of the experiment carried out.

7. Determination of the coefficient of variation for two or more methods used for essay of a specific drug. The method which shows the least coefficient of variation will be the most specific and sensitive method for assay of the drug at hand and it should be, if possible,  preferably used.

8.  Determination of the fiducial or confidence limits of the mean at  different probabilities (e. g P<0.05 or p>0.01). The arithmetic mean obtained from an experiment is not an absolute value, it is a range  that amounts between too values, upper one and lower one (upper  and lower fiducial limits). If these limits are determined at p<0.05 or p>0.01, the same mean with its upper and lower limits will be   obtained in 95% or 99% of these experiments respectively.

9. Testing the significance of the results. If a mean result (obtained   from one experiment) or a difference between two means (rom two different experiments) is significant, this will indicate the change occurring in the experiment is true or genuine or actual i. e. it   is not occurring by change. There are two ways for testing the  significance of a given result depending on the type of responses  produced by drugs.

 The student's t- test which is applicable to graded (measured or 

  quantitative) responses.

  The Chi-square test that is applied for quantal (all or none or  

  qualitative, responses.

10.Determination of the relative potency of drug of unknown concentration to that of known concentration (Standard) using two methods of bioassay: The one + one or matching assay and the two + two or four point assay.

11.Determination of the median lethal dose (LD 50) by both

    graphical and mathematical methods. This is of particular interest  

     while  studying the acute toxicity of drugs

1. Biostatistics and Bioassays

     Definition of Biostatistics and Bioassays

   ype of Bioassays

   Biological Standardization.

   Biological assays.

   Biological Assays, Qualitative and Quantitative

   Various Types of Assays.

   Advantages for Chemical and Biochemical Assays

    Disadvantages of Bioassays and their Uses?

   Requirement for a Valid Bioassay.

   Precision of the Assay- Statistical Analysis of Results.

    Variability of responses in Bioassays.

    Errors in Measurement in Bioassays and their Types.

    Concurrent Controls.

    Randomization.

    The Cross- Over Test.

    Replication Latin-Square.

    Units and Standards.

    Standard Preparation.

    Difficulties Presented by Stable International Standards.

    Recommendation for International Biological Standards.

    Dose- Response Relationship

    Introduction.

    Shapes of Dose- Response Curve.

    Characteristics of Dose- Response Curve.

    Biological Variability.

    Factors affecting Biological Variability.

    Types of Dose- Response Curves.

    In Vivo Biological Assays

    Conditions for in Vivo Assays.

    Assay of Agonists on Isolated Preparation in Vitro.

    In Vitro Assays Designs.

    The Matching Assay.

    Principles of Assay.

    Principles of Assay.

    The Three Point (2+1) Assay.

    The Four Point (2+2) Assay.

    Conditions for in Vitro Assys.

    Isolated Muscle Preparation used in Vitro Assays.

    Types of Nerve Supply to the Intestine.

    Practical Determination of Graded Dose- Response Curve.

    Practical Determination of the Matching Assay.

    Practical Determination of the Point Assay (2+2).

    Drug Solutions.

    Storage of Drug Solutions.

    Drug Concentration.

2. Statistics and Statistical Methods

      Definition

      Presentation of Statistical of Data.

     Tabular Methods of Presentation.

     Methods of Graphic Presentation.

     Descriptive Statistics

    Mesures of Central Tendency

    Mesures of Variability.

    Standard Deviation.

    Standard error.

    Validity of the Mean.

   Coeffecient of Variation or Relative Standard Deviation.

    Statistical Analysis in Bioassays.

   Tests of Significance.

   The Student's-t- Test.

   The Chi- Square Test.

   Estimation of the Relative Potency.

   Mathematical Method of Finding out the Potency.

   Calculation ofn the Relative Potency and Significance of the Test.

   Estimation of Error and Significance of the Test.

   Transformation of Percentages to Probits.

   Determination of LD50 and its Standard Error.

   Graphical Methods for Determination of LD50.

   Arithmetical Methods for Determination of LD50.

3. Problems in Biostatistics

     Presentation of Data.

    Measures of Central Tendency.

    Measures of Variability.

    Validity of the Arithmetical Mean.

    Coefficient of Variation.

    Fiducial or Confidence Limits.

    Testing the Significance- Student's t-test.

    Chi- Square Test.

    Relative potency of Unknown Drugs.

    median Lethal Dose and its Fiducial Limits.

4. Questions and Solutions

Glossory

 References